Memory Development Between Two and Twenty

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This paper examines the neural bases of memory, and discusses how forensic professionals can enhance the efficacy of retrieval within interview contexts. False and repressed memories will be discussed due to their relevance in criminal investigations. Age considerations and clinical pathology affecting memory will be appraised, as will a section detailing procedural safeguards for practitioners when interviewing involves a memory component.

Related Articles:. Date: July 26, Date: December 2, Date: June 12, Date: November 30, Potirakis, Konstantinos Eftaxias. Date: August 5, Why Us? All day, the conscious mind goes about its work planning, remembering, and choosing, or just keeping the shop running as usual.


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On balance, we humans are more action oriented by day. We stay busy doing, but in the inaction of sleep we turn inward to review and evaluate the implications of our day, and the input of those new perceptions, learnings, and—most important—emotions about what we have experienced. One purpose of this sleep-related matching process, this putting of similar memory experiences together, is to defuse the impact of those feelings that might otherwise linger and disrupt our moods and behaviors the next day. The various ways in which this extraordinary mind of ours works—the top-level rational thinking and executive deciding functions, the middle management of routine habits of thought, and the emotional relating and updating of the organized schemas of our self-concept—are not isolated from each other.

They interact. The emotional aspect, which is often not consciously recognized, drives the not-conscious mental activity of sleep.


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Despite differences in terminology, all the contemporary theories of dreaming have a common thread — they all emphasize that dreams are not about prosaic themes, not about reading, writing, and arithmetic, but about emotion, or what psychologists refer to as affect. What is carried forward from waking hours into sleep are recent experiences that have an emotional component, often those that were negative in tone but not noticed at the time or not fully resolved. One proposed purpose of dreaming, of what dreaming accomplishes known as the mood regulatory function of dreams theory is that dreaming modulates disturbances in emotion, regulating those that are troublesome.

My research, as well as that of other investigators in this country and abroad, supports this theory. Studies show that negative mood is down-regulated overnight.

Memory development bMemory and meaning digital differences (critical…

How this is accomplished has had less attention. I propose that when some disturbing waking experience is reactivated in sleep and carried forward into REM, where it is matched by similarity in feeling to earlier memories, a network of older associations is stimulated and is displayed as a sequence of compound images that we experience as dreams. This does not always happen over a single night; sometimes a big reorganization of the emotional perspective of our self-concept must be made—from wife to widow or married to single, say, and this may take many nights.

We must look for dream changes within the night and over time across nights to detect whether a productive change is under way.

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In very broad strokes, this is the definition of the mood-regulatory function of dreaming, one basic to the new model of the twenty-four hour mind I am proposing. In another fascinating part of her research, Cartwright outlines the role of sleep in skill enhancement. Concentrate on it before sleeping.

An interval of sleep has been proven to bestow a real benefit for both laboratory animals and humans when they are tested on many different types of newly learned tasks. You will remember more items or make fewer mistakes if you have had a period of sleep between learning something new and the test of your ability to recall it later than you would if you spent the same amount of time awake. The first is in early NREM sleep when the brain circuits that were active while we were learning something new, a motor skill, say, or a new language, are reactivated and stay active until REM sleep occurs.

In REM sleep, these new bits of information are then matched to older related memories already stored in long-term memory networks. This causes the new learning to stick to be consolidated and to remain accessible for when we need it later in waking. The eye movements, similar to the ones we make while reading, are how we do scanning of visual information.

Memory Development Between Two and Twenty

If the mind is truly working continuously, during all 24 hours of the day, it is not in its conscious mode during the time spent asleep. That time belongs to the unconscious.

In waking, the two types of cognition, conscious and unconscious, are working sometimes in parallel, but also often interacting. They may alternate, depending on our focus of attention and the presence of an explicit goal. If we get bored or sleepy, we can slip into a third mode of thought, daydreaming.


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These thoughts can be recalled when we return to conscious thinking, which is not generally true of unconscious cognition unless we are caught in the act in the sleep lab. This third in-between state is variously called the preconscious or subconscious, and has been studied in a few investigations of what is going on in the mind during the transition before sleep onset. Dreams are not without sense, nor are they best understood to be expressions of infantile wishes.

They are the result of the interconnectedness of new experience with that already stored in memory networks.