Design of Management Systems in U.S.S.R. Industry: A Systems Approach (Theory and Decision Library)

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This book discusses trends and advances in the application of systems science and cybernetics to various fields.

This volume reviews the systems approaches in computer science and mathematics and concentrates on several major areas of systems research in computer science and theoretical and applied mathematics. This book will be of great interest to computer scientists interested in the development of the theories and applications of computer science. Purchase the book.

Post WWII Reconstruction of the USSR - COLD WAR DOCUMENTARY

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Proceedings of the International Congress on Applied Systems Research and Cybernetics

Browse book content About the book Search in this book. Browse content Table of contents. While actualized socialist cities of the early Soviet period—known in their time as social-industrial settlements—have been criticized by architectural historians for their failure to instantiate revolutionary forms, my research establishes the import of these sites as vital nodes in a network of living laboratories for urban experimentation.

I argue that early Soviet planners were motivated not by form but by process—and specifically praxis , that is, the critical engagement with existing conditions in order to affect systemic change.

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The settlements designed by these practitioners must be investigated as mutable research sites that actively and iteratively produced knowledge about possible trajectories for socialist urbanism. From these experiments emerged a codified set of practices that drove planning work in the USSR and far-flung sites under the Soviet sphere of influence through the twentieth century.

Specifically, this factory settlement reveals how the American model of industrial standardization enabled and empowered the Soviets to enact distinctly socialist urban patterns. Avant-garde spatial theory and hard-nosed economic strategy converged on a polynuclear settlement pattern that would simultaneously reduce crowding in pre-revolutionary cities, diffuse economic development among many sites, and control the immense territories now under Soviet power.


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Many of the locations earmarked for heavy industry were undeveloped sites of mineral wealth far removed from existing transportation infrastructure. On December 26, , two concurrent decisions pushed the Soviet construction industry toward a model of national standardization. Figure 2: Consultants to the Soviet Government, The importance of this proviso, and the timing of the agreement, cannot be understated. The Stalingrad Tractor Factory was also nearing completion.

Soviet Planning Praxis: From Tractors to Territory | Weatherhead Center for International Affairs

Just nineteen days after the contract was inked, construction began on a new tractor factory outside Kharkiv, the capital of the Ukrainian Socialist Republic. Kharkiv was not a carbon copy of Stalingrad in terms of either material or labor, and these differences signal the reformulation of American industrial practices to meet the capacities of a stilldeveloping socialist context.

At play here is the concept of circulation des saviors , which insists that expertise—in this case architectural—is expanded and transformed through the looping interaction of specialists in varied political, economic, and cultural contexts. As the construction at Kharkiv unfolded, significant material changes were made between the original factory at Stalingrad and its nascent twin. Imports of the steel had to be economized, so the Kharkov plant was built largely of reinforced concrete.

Part I: Trotsky and state capitalism

The economics and timeline of the Kharkiv factory did not permit imports of all fabricated steel products from the United States, as had been the case in Stalingrad, nor was importation sustainable over the long term. And the nascent Soviet steel industry was incapable of providing identical sections to those designed for Stalingrad, or even the required amount of reinforcing bars for a fully concrete version. As a consequence, the Kharkiv Tractor Factory was effectively redesigned as a hybrid complex with three structural systems: steel, steel on top of concrete foundations, and reinforced concrete.


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The long-term implications of the tractor factory standardization experiment become clearer at the Union scale. Priviazka , directly translated, is a tightening, or binding; in the Soviet architectural context it came to mean modification of a standardized design to meet specific site conditions. This Soviet version of standardized architectural production assumed that strategic adjustments of the original model would be necessary, changes that would permit the final product and its model to bear a family resemblance even if the material and labor conditions under which they were created differed drastically.

On the contrary: it is this very paradox of mass production that Henry Ford was the first to solve; to be identical at the level of the complete product, its constituent parts need to not be identical.