Agnes Chases First Book of Grasses: The Structure of Grasses Explained for Beginners, Fourth Edition
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The early diversification of monocot LOFSEP genes and their distinct expression patterns suggests that they might have contributed to generate diversity in the reproductive development among monocots.
Based on these observations, we postulate that grass-specific LOFSEP genes sequentially control spikelet development, in particular leafy organs in the spikelet. The five rice MADS-box genes are expressed sequentially from the initiation of spikelet meristem to floral organ development, so that they may control the entire process of spikelet development. This is in contrast to the four SEP genes of Arabidopsis, which redundantly act to regulate floral meristem identity and organ identities of all four whorls Pelaz et al.
Our study also supports the idea that the LOFSEP subgroup of SEP genes, a class of genes specific to grasses, plays a crucial role in the control of spikelets that are unique to grasses. Analysis of the function of PAP2 orthologs in other grasses will facilitate our understanding of the molecular basis of the evolution of spikelet development.
Similarly, rice SEP proteins could form a tetrameric complex to regulate spikelet and floret development. The significance of an AP1 and LHS1 combination for the determination of glumes and florets in grasses has been demonstrated Preston and Kellogg Identifying partners of PAP2 in the transcription factor complex will be a prerequisite for further elucidation of the role of PAP2.
Moreover, isolation of the PAP1 gene and determination of genetic and molecular interactions between PAP1 and PAP2 will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of rice spikelet development.
Plants grown in a glasshouse under natural conditions were used for the analysis of pap phenotypes. For mRNA extraction and in situ hybridization analysis, plants cv. Spikelets in wild-type cv. Nipponbare and pap were fixed in 2.
Agnes Chase's First Book of Grasses: The Structure of Grasses Explained for Beginners
Subsequently, samples were dried at critical point, sputter-coated with platinum and observed under a scanning electron microscope S; Hitachi, Japan at an accelerating voltage of 10 kV. Rough mapping of the PAP2 locus was performed with simple sequence repeat SSR markers using the mutant F 2 plants obtained from a cross between pap and wild-type cv.
Kasalath plants. For fine mapping, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence CAPS markers were generated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in nucleotide sequences between Nipponbare and Kasalath. The fragment containing the whole region of the OsMADS34 gene including the promoter, the coding region and the terminator was cloned into the binary vector pPZP Fuse et al. In situ hybridizations were carried out as previously described Kyozuka et al.
Introduction The basic architecture of the inflorescence is determined by the identity and activity of meristems. Open in a separate window. Results The panicle of the pap mutant produces more rachis branches A wild-type panicle contains several primary rachis branches that are produced by the inflorescence meristem IM. Abnormal morphology of the pap spikelet The spikelet meristem produces lateral organs in a distichous phyllotaxy.
Expression pattern of the five rice SEP genes during early stages of panicle development For a better understanding of the functions of the rice SEP genes in panicle development, the expression patterns of the five SEP genes during early stages of panicle development were examined Fig. Discussion PAP2 is a positive regulator of spikelet meristem identity in rice Here we describe pap2 , a new rice mutant that exhibits abnormal development of the panicle.
Function of SEP subfamily MADS-box genes in rice panicle development A large number of studies have shown that molecular mechanisms controlling the development of inner floral organs are relatively well conserved between grasses and eudicots Kater et al.
Materials and methods Plant materials Plants grown in a glasshouse under natural conditions were used for the analysis of pap phenotypes.
Scanning electron microscope analysis Spikelets in wild-type cv. Molecular cloning of the PAP2 gene Rough mapping of the PAP2 locus was performed with simple sequence repeat SSR markers using the mutant F 2 plants obtained from a cross between pap and wild-type cv.
In situ hybridizations In situ hybridizations were carried out as previously described Kyozuka et al. Supplementary data Supplementary data are available at PCP online. Supplementary Material [Supplementary Data] Click here to view. Conservation of the E-function for floral organ identity in rice revealed by the analysis of tissue culture-induced loss-of-function mutants of the OsMADS1 gene.
Plant Mol. MADS-box gene family in rice: genome-wide identification, organization and expression profiling during reproductive development and stress. BMC Genomics. Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. How floral meristems are built.
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Genetics and evolution of inflorescence and flower development in grasses. Flowering and determinacy in maize. Morphogenesis and molecular basis on naked seed rice, a novel homeotic mutation of OsMADS1 regulating transcript level of AP3 homologue in rice. The Structure of Grasses Explained for Beginners. The SEP4 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana functions in floral organ and meristem identity. Genome-wide analysis of spatial and temporal gene expression in rice panicle development.
Plant J. Ti-plasmid vectors useful for functional analysis of rice genes. Plant Biotechnol. Turning floral organs into leaves, leaves into floral organs. Contribution of the Tos17 retrotransposon to rice functional genomics. Plant Biol. Natural variation at the DEP1 locus enhances grain yield in rice. Plant Physiol. Rice plant development: from zygote to spikelet.
Plant Cell. Functional conservation of MADS-box factors controlling floral organ identity in rice and Arabidopsis. Natl Acad. Trends Plant Sci. RNA silencing of single and multiple members in a gene family of rice. Simple RNAi vectors for stable and transient suppression of gene function in rice. Pohl , Paperback, Revised. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information A new edition of the classic botanical introduction to agrostology covering the major groups of grasses found in the Americas. The volume surveys basic vegetative and reproductive parts and then in the remaining 11 lessons describes increasingly more complex spikelet and inflorescence varieties, inc.
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Many of the illustrations are from the first edition, and are exquisite in their detail and clarity. Truly a standard, Chase first published the guide in and was considered the preeminent agrostologist of American grasses at the time of her death in Show More Show Less. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review.
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